Online Tools to Understand and Detect Fake News and Disinformation

  1. Disinformation Index: https://disinformationindex.org/ (web-based tool that rates news outlets based on the “probability of disinformation on a specific media outlet.”)
  2. Adblock Plus: https://adblockplus.org/ (browser extension and app that blocks advertisements and websites through the use of filtering lists)
  3. Domain Whitelist: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/domain-whitelist/pdfmaijcdceohdpbclfdidiobpfpdkda?hl=en (browser extension that blocks ads and allows users to identify sites to be whitelisted, and prevents any request to sites not included on that list.)
  4. Facebook Political Ad Collector: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/ad-observer/enliecaalhkhhihcmnbjfmmjkljlcinl (the tool shows users the advertisements on their Facebook feeds and guesses which ones are political. It also shows users political advertisements aimed at other users)
  5. Putting Civic Online Reasoning in Civics Class: https://cor.stanford.edu/ (educational initiative through the Stanford History Education Group that produces exercises and assessments to instruct students on how to judge the credibility of online content. It also develops rubrics that can be used to assess student performance.)
  6. CrashCourse Media Literacy Videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sPwJ0obJya0&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtM6jSpzb5gMNsx9kdmqBfmY&index=1 (CrashCourse videos are a YouTube channel-based series of educational videos)
  7. Bad News: https://www.getbadnews.com/#intro (game intended to build user understanding of the techniques involved in the dissemination of disinformation)
  8. Factitious:   http://factitious.augamestudio.com/#/ (tool intended to build user skills in identifying false information in a gameified format. Using a Tinder-like format, players swipe left or right depending on if they think the news presented is real or fake. Users can get hints by looking at the source of the article. Players earn points and can progress through several levels.)
  9. Fakey: https://fakey.osome.iu.edu/ (Web-based interactive educational tool designed to improve media literacy. It presents news stories that incorporate characteristics of clickbait, fake news, conspiracy theories, etc. Users are then asked to choose to share, hide, or fact-check that information.)
  10. Learn 2 Discern Curriculum and Online Game: https://www.irex.org/project/learn-discern-l2d-media-literacy-training (online games developed to teach media and information literacy skills. The program includes techniques for identifying disinformation.)
  11. Interland: https://beinternetawesome.withgoogle.com/en_us (web-based game focused on teaching students how to identify false and misleading information.)
  12. Humble Media Genius: https://pbskids.org/fetch/ruff/ (online course offered through PBS that teaches media literacy skills through cartoons.)
  13. Interland: https://beinternetawesome.withgoogle.com/en_us (web-based game focused on teaching students how to identify false and misleading information.)
  14. Bot Sentinel: https://botsentinel.com/ (platform developed to detect and track troll bots and untrustworthy Twitter accounts.)
  15. Botometer: https://botometer.osome.iu.edu/ (web-based program that uses machine learning to classify Twitter accounts as bot or human by looking at features of a profile including friends, social network structure, temporal activity, language and sentiment)
  16. BotSlayer: https://osome.iuni.iu.edu/tools/botslayer/ (browser extension that helps track and detect potential manipulation of information spreading on Twitter)
  17. Captain Fact: https://captainfact.io/ (collaborative fact checking platform)
  18. Checkology: https://newslit.org/ (media literacy curriculum with both online and offline components, focused on teaching students to read and interpret the news)
  19. ClaimBuster: https://idir.uta.edu/claimbuster/ (web-based automated, live fact-checking tool)
  20. Climate Feedback: https://climatefeedback.org/ (web-based content annotation tool that allows scientists to annotate articles to provide additional context and draw attention to inaccuracies. The process results in a credibility score.)
  21. CrossCheck: https://firstdraftnews.org/project/crosscheck/ (collaborative initiative through FirstDraft News focused on verification)
  22. Digital Polarization Initiative: https://adpaascu.wordpress.com/category/digital-polarization-initiative/ (allows for the crowdsourced verification of claims submitted by university students. Students submit claims and then work along with other students at participating organizations to collect relevant information, viewpoints, and evidence about that claim. All information about a claim is stored and all submitted claims and questions are crowdsourced.)
  23. Dirt Protocol: https://credibilitycoalition.org/credcatalog/project/dirt-protocol/ (blockchain verification tool that allows communities to moderate data, such that anyone is able to add data to the platform and any user can then challenge that data. Users earn tokens by identifying and correcting errors.)
  24. Emergent.Info: http://www.emergent.info/about (web-based tool that tracks, verifies, or debunks rumors and conspiracies online. Rumors are suggested by individuals on the site, and then staff review and determine whether the claim is verified or false.)
  25. Exifdata: http://exifdata.com/ (web-based tool that provides information about the source, timestamp, creation and modification information.)
  26. Exiftool: https://exiftool.org/ (computer application that provides metadata information about the source, timestamp, creation, and modification information.)
  27. Factcheck.org: https://www.factcheck.org/ (the website monitors the factual accuracy that is present in American politics. It focuses on statements made by U.S. politicians.)
  28. Factchecking: https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/ (provides a series of fact-checks on top political and other issues.)
  29. FakerFact: https://www.fakerfact.org/about (artificial intelligence tool that assesses the purpose and characteristics of information.)
  30. First Draft Verification Curriculum: https://firstdraftnews.org/training/ (designed to teach users (there are versions for both journalists and for the general public) how to verify the accuracy and credibility of different types of media.)
  31. Forensically Image Verification Tool: https://29a.ch/photo-forensics/#level-sweep (web-based collection of tools that can be used for “digital image forensics.”)
  32. Fotoforensics: http://fotoforensics.com/ (web-based verification tool that provides information about the source, timestamp, creation, and modification information of images.)
  33. Get-Metadata Viewer: https://www.metadata2go.com/ (web-based tool that provides users with metadata about photos, videos, and texts, including the location, time, date it was modified, format, file size, etc.)
  34. Glorious Contextubot: https://www.sharednation.org/products/contextubot (verification and fact-checking tool that identifies the sources of audio and video content.)
  35. Hamilton 2.0: https://securingdemocracy.gmfus.org/hamilton-dashboard/ (web-based dashboard that provides real-time information on Russian propaganda and disinformation online.)
  36. Hoaxy: https://hoaxy.osome.iu.edu/ (web-based tool that visualizes the spread of articles online. Hoaxy searches for claims and fact-checking going back to 2016. It tracks the sharing of links to stories from low-credibility sources and independent fact-checking organizations. It also calculates a bot score, which is a measure of the likely level of automation.)
  37. Iffy Quotient: https://csmr.umich.edu/projects/iffy-quotient/ (web-based tool that uses NewsWhip to query Facebook and Twitter and identify URLs that are known to be biased or to be frequent reporters of false information.)
  38. Information Operations Archive: https://www.io-archive.org/#/ (archive of publicly available and attributed data from known online information operations from public and non-deleted tweets on Twitter and Reddit attributed to Russian and Iranian actors.)
  39. International Fact Checking Network (IFCN) Codes and Principles: https://ifcncodeofprinciples.poynter.org/know-more (The International Fact Checking Network is an initiative created in order to promote fact-checking in journalism. Part of this includes the creation of the ICFN Code of Principles, which may help establish standards for fact-checking methods. The ICFN also organizes fellowships, trainings, and conferences.)
  40. Journalism Trust Initiative: https://jti-rsf.org/en/ (promotes trust in journalism through the development of standards.)
  41. KnowNews: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/know-news/bmlfbcipfpdohbhhlkibdiacikbpaofm (browser extension developed through the Media Monitoring Africa Initiative that classifies news sites based on their credibility. Sites are rated as credible, dodgy, or not rated.)
  42. Lead Stories FactChecker: https://leadstories.com/how-we-work.html (a web-based fact-checking platform that identifies false or misleading stories, rumors, and conspiracies by using its Trendolizer technology to identify trending content that is then fact-checked by their team of journalists)
  43. Making Sense of the News: https://www.coursera.org/learn/news-literacy (six-week online course in journalism and news literacy offered by the City University of New York.)
  44. Media LIT: Overcoming Information Overload: https://www.edx.org/course/media-lit-overcoming-information-overload (online media literacy course hosted by Arizona State University that educates users on the skills needed to navigate the information ecosystem, to engage as viewers and creators of information, and to analyze information, distinguishing between true and false information.)
  45. MediaBias Ratings: https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/ (web-based platform that produces media bias ratings based on a website’s level and direction of bias, and also identifies questionable and conspiracy sources.)
  46. News Literacy Course Pack, Center for News Literacy: https://digitalresource.center/training (media literacy curriculum that intends to provide students with the skills needed to be engaged and aware information consumers in the 21st century. It covers topics such as accessing and evaluating sources, analyzing information, bias, and the economics of the media industry.)
  47. Metapicz: http://metapicz.com/#landing (provides information about the source, timestamp, creation, and modification information.)
  48. NewsCheck Trust Index: https://www.newscheck.com/ (web-based platform that performs credibility scoring using a combination of machine technology (blockchain) and humans to fight fake news.)
  49. NewseumED: https://newseumed.org/ (collection of free online resources, activities, and workshops created to promote media literacy skills for everyday life.)
  50. Newstrition: https://our.news/ (browser extension that provides information about news sources and rates the accuracy of the news story itself.)
  51. PolitiFact: https://www.politifact.com/ (website that fact-checks “newsworthy and significant” statements and rates these statements as “True,” “Mostly True,” “Half True,” “Mostly False,” “False,” and “Pants on Fire.” The process involves reviewing other fact-checking sources, Google searches, online database seraches, expert consultation, and other literature reviews.)
  52. PolitiTruth: https://www.cinqmarsmedia.com/politifact/index.html (tool intended to build user skills in identifying false information in a gameified format)
  53. Polygraph (BBG): https://www.usagm.gov/2016/12/06/polygraph-info-speak-truth-disinformation/ (web-based fact-checking platform that relies on journalists to research government statements and reports, along with statements by high-profile individuals. It classifies the reports based on their measure of credibility and provides additional context.)
  54. Public Editor: https://www.publiceditor.io/ (crowdsourced credibility rating system that outputs scores based on the evaluations of a network of “citizen scientists” who annotate articles with comments regarding mistakes, biases, or other relevant information.)
  55. Rbutr: http://rbutr.com/ (collaborative online platform that is developing a database of webpages, each of which is a rebuttal of another webpage, with the goal of combating disinformation and reducing fake news.)
  56. Claim Review: https://schema.org/ClaimReview (source label attached to website content that provides search engines with some information about the content of the website.)
  57. Snopes: https://www.snopes.com/ (website that conducts extensive fact-checking research on popular topics, often chosen based on reader interest. Snopes uses a number of icons to classify content: True, Mostly True, Mixture, Mostly False, False, Unproven, Outdated, Miscaptioned, Correct Attribution, Misattributed, Scan, and Legend.)
  58. The Trust Project Indicators: https://thetrustproject.org/ (collaborative initiative of several news companies that is developing standards to increase transparency in journalism. The project developed the following “Trust Indicators” as a start: Best Practices, Author/ Reporter Expertise, Type of Work, Citations and References, Methods, Locally Sourced, Diverse Voices, Actionable Feedback. News Organizations will display the indicators on their own articles.)
  59. Trive Verify: https://trive.news/Whitepaper.0.2.6x.pdf (web-based platform and browser extension that provides fact-checking through crowdsourcing using blockchain indexing. It uses a Nash Equilibrium incentive structure for fact-checking. There are several roles that go into the process: the Curator (bids for a story), the Research (picks up claims, researches claims), the Verifier (reviews research claims), the Witness (reviews anonymous claims), and the Consumer who uses the Trive plugin. Incentives for “truth telling” are built into the system, through the use of tokens, which accrue to the researcher for verified stories, the verifier for identifying false information, and to the witness.)
  60. Who Targets Me: https://whotargets.me/en/ (allows users to create an anonymous profile, then collect information about the political and other ads that they see, along with information about why they were targeted with those ads. The tool can provide users with statistics on who/what has been targeting them and uses this information to build a database of political advertising and targeting.)
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